Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Problem Of Social Security - 1534 Words

Social Security Benefits The Problem Social Security Faces: The concept of the â€Å"graying of America† is becoming a more pressing issue as the baby boomer population is coming of age to retire. Between years 2000 to 2010, the number of Americans aged 65 and older increased a staggering 15.1 percent (35 million to 40.3 million) (Karger 2014, pg. 202). Demographics suggest that by 2050, the number of this age group will increase to 88.5 million (Karger 2014, pg. 22). Not only is this population growing, but people are living longer. The larger issue is having enough money to provide people benefits to sustain a decent quality of life. Assistance and Limits associated with this program: Social Security is a system in which people must insure†¦show more content†¦The benefit will be reduced by one-half of one percent for each month a person decides to collect Social Security benefits before their full retirement age. It is also possible to continue to work and simultaneously receive retirement benefits. Benefits will not be reduced in the month a person reaches full retirement age. However, benefits must be reduced if earnings exceed certain limits for the months before full retirement age is reached (Social Security Administration 2016, pg. 5). Funding and Distribution: Each worker in the United States pays taxes into Social Security. This money is used presently for those who have already retired, disabled, survivors of workers who have died, and dependents of those who received benefits (Social Security Administration 2016, pg. 7). The money that a person pays in taxes is not put into a personal trust fund. The government uses the taxes a worker pays to give benefits who are the current recipients. Any â€Å"leftovers† go to the general Social Security trust fund, but not a personal account with a specific name on it (Social Security Administration 2016, pg. 7). To visualize subsidies for retired workers, below the figure shows a hypothetical benefits breakdown for workers retiring at age 65 in 1982 (Social Security Administration 2016, pg. 8). Type of Worker Monthly Benefits Benefit-Contribution Ratio Annuity Based on Contribution Subsidy Subsidy as Percentage of Monthly Benefits Single male, maximumShow MoreRelatedSocial Security : A Social Problem3610 Words   |  15 PagesThe social security deficit is one that consumes the economy in the greatest way possible, whether man is aware of it or not. Social Security is an insurance plan the working class earns their beneficial coverage due to their work hours and tax paying on their earnings. The program is for the disabled and for those who can longer work due to health issues, or because of the retirement age that is required to have reached and some have met. To solve the social security dilemma some of the actionsRead MoreThe Problem With Social Security Trust Fund865 Words   |  4 PagesThe problem with Social Security trust fund is that at the present time there is more credit in the trust fund than is required for payment of Social Security benefits. â€Å"By 2027 revenue coming into the trust fund will fall below the level of being paid out, and by 2040 the trust fund will be depleted (Quadagno, 201 4).†Meaning there will be not enough money from payroll taxes to pay all the benefits that are promised to citizens. This puts everyone who is going to enter retirement in jeopardy. EvenRead MoreSocial Media Has Cause The Security Problem855 Words   |  4 Pagescollege students will build the close relationship with their teachers and more enhancing their engagement with study through using the social media, using social media still exist some unsafely problem to the student. Using the social media will cause the security problem, such as identity thieve will stole college student’s personal information from their social media account and the threaten massage, these two things deeply negative affect their daily life. For instance, Heidi Daitch graduatedRead MoreThe Problems Faced By The International Students Without A Social Security Number At Pittsburg State University1635 Words   |  7 PagesCHAPTER 2 Review of literature: The problems faced by the International students without a Social Security Number at Pittsburg State University. Introduction The study conducted by Savage (2007) describes when international students arrive in the United States, students are challenged by the many issues: language, academics and they have to adjust to many things like living, making communication, cultures, weather, transportation because they vary from one region to another region (Savage, 2007)Read MoreSocial Security : A Federal Insurance Program1507 Words   |  7 Pages Social Security Argumentation Essay Social security is a federal insurance program that provides benefits to retired people and those who are unemployed or disabled. Social security is, in other words, earned benefit with dedicated funding from payroll contributions paid by workers and their employers, known as the FICA tax. Generally, to be covered a worker must have worked for long enough; recently enough, and earned enough to have sufficient FICA credits, typically about 10 years. Benefits areRead MoreThe Benefits of Social Security1031 Words   |  4 PagesSocial security is any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income. The United States government program was established in 1935. Social security is important in the U.S. because it lifts 20 million people out of poverty. Social security has changed drastically in the past few years of our society. Today, 37 million people get social security benefits of more than $15 billion a month. One way of getting a social security is to gain employment. TheRead MoreSocial Security : The United States1220 Words   |  5 Pagesover 80 years social security has provided Americans with money after they reach the minimum age requirement. This money has provided retirement money for millions of people across the country but is now in jeopardy. To get an understanding of the current and future situation of social security it’s important to understand what social security is, when it was created, why it was created, and also how it has performed since it was created. After getting an understanding of social security I will thenRead MoreThe Economical Issues With Social Security1700 Words   |  7 PagesUnderstanding the Economical Issues With Social Security and How to Fix Them The original intention for creating social security was to act as a safety net for retirees, but as time past, there seems to be a great deal of economic issues relating to the program. Social Security was created to help benefit retired workers, spouse and children of deceased workers, as well as workers who have become disabled before retirement. This insurance program provides retirees with a steady income once theyRead MoreSocial Security and Medicare Will Hang by a Thread764 Words   |  3 PagesPeople receiving Social Security and Medicare need to prepare for drastic changes. Social Security and Medicare in unity has been around since 1965. President Lyndon B. Johnson decided to help the elderly pay for expensive medical necessities from doctor visits to medicine. President Johnson knew that elderly individuals would have less income and pay more for medical necessities than younger individuals. He made Social Security and Medicare a number one priority during his presidency, not knowingRead MoreThe Social Security System Is The Most Successful Government Social Insurance Program1346 Words   |  6 PagesThe Social Security system is perhaps the most successful government social insurance program in the nation s history; and began with the Social Security Act in 1935. Social Security is a needed federal system that encourages income stability to millions of people across the United States. This is accomplished by giving a stable flow of income to replenish lost wages that occur as a result of disability, retirement, or death of a family member. There are about 59 million people in the U.S. that

Scramble for Kenya Free Essays

Imperialism is defined as one country’s domination of the political, economic, and social life of another country. In Africa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, imperialism was present and growing. The main countries involved in the imperialism in Africa were the French, German, and Britain. We will write a custom essay sample on Scramble for Kenya or any similar topic only for you Order Now All of these countries were in a constant struggle to become the most powerful, to have the most riches, and control over high abundances of the natural resources in Africa. One region in particular being that of present day Kenya was desirable to the British. Although Britain’s reason’s to imperialize Kenya were selfish and harmful, in the long run Britain helped Kenya progress. On a quest to find natural resources in Kenya the Portuguese were among the first European settlers along the coast of Kenya. Up until the 19th century, very little was known about Kenya’s land beyond the coast until the arrival of the British who came and colonized Kenya. Kenya was under the control of British between the 19th century and mid 20th century. In the early 1800s, European powers began rushing to get a hold of unclaimed territories within areas of interest in Africa. Zanzibar and the interior of Eastern Africa caught the attention of both Germany and Britain. To avoid conflict, in 1886, Germany and Britain signed a treaty in which they agreed upon what lands they would pursue. Germany would take the coast of present day Tanzania and Britain had access to the area where Kenya and Uganda lie. 1 Britain was also interested in other areas in Southern Africa; however, the British were hesitant in accepting full responsibility for the region they had access to. The result was Britain allowing a commercial company, the Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEAC), the right to administer and develop the eastern territory. The IBEAC was responsible for the land stretching from the eastern coast of Africa to Uganda all the way to the northwestern part to Lake Victoria. 2 The British settlers were particularly attracted to Kenya’s fertile highlands. Britain’s main interest in Kenya was not to control the local people, but to build a railway that would connect Uganda and Zanzibar, to the Indian Ocean. The railway was important for strategic and economic reasons. It was to be the main link that would connect Lake Victoria and Uganda. Uganda became a source of interest since the source of the Nile river was thought to be there. The construction of the railway led to immigration of people from India who were imported to work on the railway. In order to maintain control over the Kenyans, the British limited their education to practical skills for working on farms. The colonial government forced Kenyans to work. In 1901, the British imposed tax payments in every area that they controlled. In order to make room for the incoming British, indigenous agricultural peoples such as the Kikuyu and the Kampa were removed form their land and relocated. No longer allowed to farm on their own land, many Kenyans were forced to work for Europeans growing cash-crops. Wages for these workers were very low. Laws were also put in place by the colonial government that allowed employees to be fine or imprisoned if employers were not pleased with their work. It was these crimes, among other abuses, which gave rise to independence movements in Kenya which eventually liberated the country from the British. Discrimination, imposition of taxes, forced labor, and confiscated land caused friction between Kenyans and the colonial government. 4 The friction led to eventual resistance by Kenyans against the British rule. Rebellious groups were formed one of them being the Mau Mau. The Mau Mau was a rebellion group formed to oppose British rule from 1890 until 1960. They worked on plans to force the British to leave. The loss of European life is very little. The main victims of Mau Mau violence are other Kikuyu who refuse to support the cause. Among the Mau Mau themselves as many as 11,000 died in encounters with British forces. In 1929 one of the nationalist leaders, Jomo Kenyatta, was sent to England to negotiate on behalf of the Kikuyu community by presenting their concerns to the British government. In October 1952, there was a sudden outbreak of sabotage and assassination in Kenya. Kikuyu terrorists and their ritual oaths of loyalty to their secret organization reflect the customs of Jomo Kenyatta’s political group, the Kikuyu Central Association. The colonial government reacted immediately, declaring a state of emergency and arresting Jomo Kenyatta. Kenyatta was charged for planning the Mau Mau uprising, he was sentenced in March 1953 to seven years’ imprisonment. Jomo Kenyatta was still in detention as of 1960, but his colleagues elected him president of their newly formed political party, the Kenya African National Union. Kenyatta is finally released by the British in 1961. 5 In elections in May 1963, Kenya African National Union won the majority of the seats. Independence of Kenya was achieved in December 1963, with Kenyatta as prime minister. A year later, under a new constitution, Kenya becomes a republic. In 1964, Kenyatta was elected president. British imperialism changed Kenyan society in a number of ways. Large numbers of new peoples from different cultures took up residence in Kenya bringing in new ideas, missionaries brought about changes in religion, and land and labor practices changed. In addition to spreading their religion, missionaries also influenced and changed Kenyan culture in other ways. They established European style churches, schools, and hospitals which would have an ongoing impact upon the Kenyan people7. he cultural changes Kenya has undergone during the British imperialism has helped Kenya progress as a whole. How to cite Scramble for Kenya, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The Hospital Window Essays (1185 words) - James Dickey, Elevator

The Hospital Window The death of a loved one can put unimaginable stress on the loved ones of the deceased. This stress can make one's life chaotic and unpleasant for long periods of time if the mourners do not understand the death. James Dickey, who believes, "poetry is the center of the creative wheel," wrote the poem, "The Hospital Window". The relationship between mourners and death becomes apparent in this "simple 54-line poem . . . about a parent's dying as a transformative experience, and the possibility that love conquers fear." The poem takes place on a city street adjacent to a large hospital. In "The Hospital Window", Dickey uses images which represent life and death to demonstrate that the death of a loved one can make one enter a surrealistic state, in which everyday occurrences appear to be heavenly; however, if one can overcome the death by understanding it, he can then return to a peaceful life. In the beginning of the poem, the images which distinguish life and death show that the speaker perceives normal events as spiritual after leaving his father's hospital room. Dickey's persona enters this state when he is on the hospital elevator. As the elevator brings him down to ground level, he remembers his father lying in his room above "in a blue light."(3) According to Gertrude Jobes, the color blue represents heaven and God. Therefore, its shining down on the speaker's father represents God's presence with his father. For any other observer, the light is obviously "shed by a tinted window,"(4) but the speaker's state of mind leads him to believe that the light shines from heaven. Once outside, the speaker turns to face the hospital. As he turns, he sees that "[each] window possesses the sun / As though it burned there on a wick."(13) To Jobes, the sun represents life. A candle wick burns for only a certain period of time, and then dies out. Therefore, the speaker believes that the reflection of the sun in the windows is actually his father's life. When the speaker reaches out to the sun, and "[waves], like a man catching fire,"(15) he tries to grab his father's life back. At that moment, the glare from the sun reflects in a certain way, making "all the deep-dyed windowpanes flash."(16) This flash, in the speaker's mind, is God reaching out for the father's soul. Also, the flash mocks the speaker's attempts at grabbing his father's life from the grips of death. Furthermore, the speaker visualizes God's presence by "all the white rooms / [turning] the color of Heaven."(18) To the speaker, the heavenly white color of the rooms represents purity and innocence, as described in Jobes, while others see merely white rooms. As the speaker studies the windows, he sees that all reflect "flames"(21), or the candles of the living still burning. It is then he realizes that his father's window is different. It reflects "the bright, erased blankness of nothing."(23) The flickering light visible in all of the other rooms is not visible in his father's room because he is dead. Once the speaker realizes his father is dead, he can start to overcome the death. In the middle of the poem, images representing life and death show how the speaker overcomes his father's death. After experiencing the madness of death, the speaker transitions from not believing in the death to realizing that his father is leaving him. First, the speaker realizes that his father's body remains in his room "[in] the shape of his death still living"(25). Death still living represents the father's dead body, with the soul still alive within. This thought causes a madness within the speaker because he realizes that his father's soul, oreverything he was, may remain within the corpse forever. Eventually, his father's soul "lifts [its] arms out of stillness at last"(31), causing the speaker to realize that his father's soul is leaving the body. The speaker "[turns] as blue as a soul / As the moment when I was born"(33-34) from the realization that his father will live on with him forever. This realization holds true because his father gave him life, so therefore his father will live on in his life. Additionally, the speaker

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Workforce Diversity

Organization Culture/Workforce Diversity Abstract Different organizations are defined by the unique characteristics displayed by their workforce. Developing unique behavior enables workers to share responsibilities and attain a strong bond that helps the company to realize its corporate goals. This paper will analyze organizational culture and workforce diversity and evaluate their contribution towards organizational success.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Organization Culture/Workforce Diversity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Organization Culture Organization culture is defined as a unique and different way of thinking and behaving that is demonstrated by workers from the same organization. It is a characteristic pattern that is distinctive and recognizable, one that enhances the operations carried out in a particular organization (Moffat, McLean, 2010). For an organization to develop its unique culture, there must be shared understanding between the w orkers. The shared understanding is derived from the executives, who encourage joint operations. Through the shared understanding, organizations are able to perform better. The coordination that is created within organization’s workforce increases productivity and encourages workers to focus on organizational objectives. In the development of an organizational culture, workers must be given an opportunity to express their views, present proposals and engage in debates that are all geared towards realizing the organization’s goals. When the workers are given the freedom of expression, they develop a coordinated and shared understanding, which is unique for all organizations. Organizational culture can also be defined as an invisible web that enhances decision-making, and employees’ behavior and thinking (Schein, 2010). The routine and common practices seen in every organization is the culture that is sometimes taken for granted. In the development of these unique characteristics, there must be agreements between the executives and the junior members on how to proceed. The culture is not forced into the employees, but rather, it is nurtured and slowly developed to perfection. The nurturing process allows the employees to fully understand their responsibilities and develop shared interests for enhanced coordination (Moffat, McLean, 2010). Some of the tools that can be used by organizations to enhance culture are the social networking sites. The main objective of a culture is bringing together employees’ behaviors and ways of thinking to one common and shared characteristic that is geared towards achieving the company’s goals. Communication is the key to realizing this objective and social networking sites provide a good framework on which workers can communicate, give their views and consent on certain issues in the company (Tan, Lee, Chiu, 2008).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The possibility of communication and sharing ideas increases the commonality among employees and shapes up a shared way of thinking (Moffat, McLean, 2010). Conversations within an organization are the most effective ways of ensuring that ideas and interests are shared. Without proper communication, employees would be disintegrated and this would lead to varying behaviors and thinking. The leaders must make the most sensitive decisions for a company. However, through the social networking sites, ideas can be generated from the rest of the workers and help in establishing the best decision for the company. These tools are effective in developing the ‘both-and’ strategy that allows for contained debate from all the employees within an organization. Ambiguity can cause the company to collapse. However, all the information concerning the company that is in circulation can be verified through social netw orking sites. Through conversations and communication, any ambiguity detected in an organization can be discussed and this can lead to new possibilities (Schein, 2010). The social networking sites are frameworks on which corporate members and employees can meet and discuss the issues affecting the company. In addition, the tool can be used to come up with development ideas from the workforce despite the fact that the executive management has to approve them. Shared interests and understanding shape up organizations and enhance communication between workers and executives. While this feature goes undetected in many organizations, it is present through common behaviors and unique characteristics (Tan, Lee, Chiu, 2008). All organizations have their unique characteristics and any new employee is expected to study and be connected with the existing culture for shared understanding to exist. New employees can learn about the existing culture by observing, or following the conversations i n the social networking sites. The expectations from the organization are defined in the sites and they assist in determining the best strategy to be adopted by the company. The management has to set up effective communication channels that are to be used by the workers in developing a unique culture (Moffat, McLean, 2010).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Organization Culture/Workforce Diversity specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While social networking sites are some of the best communication channels, other ways may be considered provided they enhance dialogue and allow all workers to express their views. With increased freedom and opportunities to contribute to organizational matters, a culture is formed that streamlines all employees’ thoughts and behaviors towards realizing corporate goals. Productivity is increased when the workers and the organization develop common interests. Development of opportuniti es by the managers increases the efforts from the workforce and ensures that corporate objectives are prioritized. Workplace Diversity The concept of workplace diversity can be defined as the existing differences between workers in an organization. It is a wider definition of the employees in an organization in terms of gender, race, age and ethnic background. In addition, it also encompasses personal behavior, cognitive styles and experiences among others. In workforce diversity, there are various benefits and challenges present. One of the benefits is increased adaptability in the workforce (Herring, 2009). Employees with different characteristics will provide different solutions to the problems within an organization. For a company to be successful, the employees must have the potential to embrace diversity. Since employees possess different and unique characteristics, they provide the required skills and experiences that are required to realize corporate goals. The other benefit is the availability of many viewpoints to a problem. In a company with same employees, the viewpoints and ideas for solving corporate problems are limited. However, in a diverse workforce, there are different ideas and viewpoints that help in reducing the problems in an organization. Efficiency and effective execution of requirements is realized only amid a diverse workforce. This is due to the potential held by each of the workers, which helps them utilize their unique traits to the company’s benefit. Each employee acts as a representation of a larger group and hence offers his/her best (Kundu, 2003). A young worker would want to prove that young employees are competent and perfect, while an old worker would like to prove that experience brings about perfection. Through such competition, an organization increases its output.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A diverse workforce also ensures that there is a broader service range. In a multi-cultured workforce, offering services on a global basis becomes an easy task. Barriers to communication and other issues are dealt with by the diversity present within the organization. With a diverse workforce, a company can allocate specific employees to specific tasks depending on the nature of the job and customers’ expectations. A company can exploit languages, cultural understanding and experiences possessed by members of its workforce (Kundu, 2003). This helps in ensuring that there is equal representation and improving service delivery. There are various challenges that are associated with a diverse workforce. One of the challenges is communication (Herring, 2009). The diverse workforce may bring about cultural, language and perceptual barriers that may hinder effective communication. Whether intentional or unintentional, employees may develop certain perceptions about certain factions and hence limit openness and coordination. Without proper coordination, the company may reduce productivity and record losses. The other challenge in workforce diversity is that some of the workers may be resistant to change. When joining a new company, employees must be willing to change and adapt to the culture and expectations of the company. However, people from different regions may bring into the company different beliefs that may compromise its organizational culture. Workers with different beliefs may fail to change and comply with the organizational expectations. Bringing along experiences and strategies and sticking to them, even when they are not workable, are some of the common characteristics of a diverse workforce (Corinne, DiTomaso, 2004). The other challenge of workforce diversity is experienced in the implementation of policies to cater for it. All the employees must feel appreciated and represented in the best way possible by the company. The company must ensure t hat all its policies are fair and just and that there is no discrimination and prejudice against any employee (Herring, 2009). The implementation process is very tricky as it can compromise certain values hitherto held by the company. In addition, it may favor some employees at the expense of others. To prevent the challenges from affecting an organization, the management should frequently assess their diversity process to determine whether there is need for change. Assessment allows the management to determine all possible challenges at an earlier stage so that solutions can be easily developed. Training of the workforce should also be prioritized to prevent some workers from resisting change. The training is meant to help the workers learn about the existing culture and the expectations of the company and its customers. Workforce diversity is therefore beneficial to a company, but can also affect the operations if not properly handled. The workers should work together with the man agement to ensure that all challenges are addressed and that corporate goals are not compromised. References Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Moffat, A., McLean, A. (2010). Merger as conversation. Leadership Organization Development Journal, 31(6), 534-550. Kundu, S. C. (2003). Workforce diversity status: a study of employees’ reactions. Industrial Management Data Systems, 103(4), 215 – 226. Herring, C. (2009). Does Diversity Pay? Race, Gender, and the Business Case for Diversity. American Sociological Review, 74(2), 208-224. Corinne, P., DiTomaso, N. (2004). Workforce Diversity: Why, When, And How. Research in the Sociology of Work, 14, 1-14.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Teaching Reading Comprehension to Dyslexic Students

Teaching Reading Comprehension to Dyslexic Students Reading comprehension is frequently very difficult for students with dyslexia. They are challenged by word recognition; they may forget a word even though they have seen it several times. They may spend so much time and effort in sounding words out, they lose the meaning of the text or they may need to read a passage over and over to fully understand what is being said. An in-depth report, completed by the National Reading Panel in 2000, provides a look at how teachers can best teach students reading comprehension. This skill is considered essential, not only in learning to read but also in lifelong learning. The panel held regional public hearings with teachers, parents, and students to help form an understanding of what was required in making sure students had a solid foundation of reading skills. Reading comprehension was listed as one of the five most important skills in developing reading. According to the panel, there were three specific themes within reading comprehension that were discussed: Vocabulary InstructionText Comprehension InstructionTeacher Preparation and Comprehension Strategies Instruction Vocabulary Instruction Teaching vocabulary increases reading comprehension. The more words a student knows, the easier it is to understand what is being read. Students must also be able to decode unfamiliar words, that is, they must be able to derive the meaning of the word through knowledge or similar words or through the surrounding text or speech. For example, a student can better understand the word truck if they first understand the word car or a student can guess what the word truck means by looking at the rest of the sentence, such as The farmer loaded hay in the back of his truck and drove away. The student can assume that the truck is something you drive, thereby being like a car, but is bigger since it can hold hay. The panel found that using a variety of methods to teach vocabulary worked better than simple vocabulary lessons. Some of the successful methods included:Using computer and technology to aid in vocabulary instruction Repetitive exposure to wordsLearning vocabulary words prior to reading textIndirect learning of vocabulary, for example, using vocabulary words in a number of different contextsLearning vocabulary in both written text and oral speech Teachers should not rely on a single method of teaching vocabulary but instead should combine different methods to create interactive and multi-faceted vocabulary lessons that are age-appropriate for the students. Text Comprehension Instruction Text comprehension, or understanding what the printed words mean as a whole rather than understanding individual words, is the basis of reading comprehension. The panel found that comprehension is enhanced when readers actively relate the ideas represented in print to their own knowledge and experiences and construct mental representations in memory. Further, it was found that when cognitive strategies were used during reading, comprehension increased. Some of the specific reading comprehension strategies that were found to be effective are: Teaching students to monitor their understanding of the material as they readHaving students practice reading comprehension skills as a groupUsing pictures and graphics to represent the material being learnedAnswering questions about the materialCreating questions about the materialDetermining the structure of the storySummarizing the material As with vocabulary instruction, it was found that using a combination of reading comprehension strategies and making lessons multisensory was more effective than using a single strategy. In addition, understanding that strategies may change depending on what is being read was important. For example, reading science text may require a different strategy than reading a story. Students who are able to experiment with different strategies better equipped to determine which strategy will work for their current assignment. Teacher Preparation and Comprehension Strategies Instruction In order to teach reading comprehension, the teacher must, of course, be knowledgeable of all of the components of reading comprehension. Specifically, teachers should receive training in explaining the strategies to students, modeling thinking processes, encouraging students to be curious about what they are reading, keeping students interested and creating interactive reading instruction. There are two main approaches to teaching reading comprehension strategies: Direct Explanation: Using this approach, the teacher explains the reasoning and mental processes used to make text meaningful. Teachers can explain that reading and understanding text is a problem-solving exercise. For example, when summarizing what has been read, a student can play the part of a detective, looking for important information in the text. Transaction Strategy Instruction: This approach also uses direct explanations of the strategies used in reading comprehension but includes class and group discussions on the material in order to develop a deeper understanding of the material. Source Teaching Children to Read: An Evidence-Based Assessment of the Scientific Research Literature on Reading and Its Implications for Reading Instruction, 2000, National Reading Panel, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Government

Friday, February 14, 2020

The United Nations and international order Essay

The United Nations and international order - Essay Example From the research it can be comprehended that when the Great powers came together in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War, the prevailing issues that obviated the need to form the United Nation were limited to those factors that characterized oppressive powers in Germany, Japan and Italy. Thus international order was perceived in an entirely different way than it is perceived today. Moreover, the founding fathers were embattled having just endured a major war and wanted to take advantage of the failures attributed to the League of Nations in that it had not been able to prevent a Second World War. The resolution was perceived as cooperation among the international community. However, the veto powers and the virtual autonomy of the five permanent members to the United Nation illustrate that the United Nation has been far from cooperative in coping with the prevention, management and cessation of breaches of the peace. Be that as it may, since the establishing of the United Nation the world has not suffered through a world war. It can therefore be argued that maintaining the world peace may not require international cooperation as called for by the United Nation. However, having regard to the proxy wars in the Middle East, the Gulf Wars and many other conflicts and humanitarian crimes, the effectiveness of the United Nation in maintaining international order, peace and security is seriously in doubt... Similarly, the UN decided on promoting peace and security via a framework that consisted of an â€Å"international organization† as opposed to the League of Nation’s framework of a global government.4 Thus the UN set out to consciously distance itself from the failed League of Nations. Setting the general tone of equality among the international community, Article 2(1) of the UN Charter 1945 specifically states that the UN was â€Å"based on sovereign equality of all of its Members†.5 The UK and the USSR were opposed to the UN becoming involved in anything outside of political and security issues. Even so, it was determined that the UN could not be effective without the authority to delve into the underlying root causes of armed conflict such as the economic, social and ideological factors the create tensions among and within states.6 In this regard, the UN’s mandate in maintaining international order would be somewhat expansive. It would not merely limit the scope of its authority to actual conflict, but would take on a much broader role in the international order. Early Challenges to the UN’s International Order Agenda The Allies of the Second World War were for all intents and purposes the founding fathers of the UN. Collectively, the Allies were the world’s Great Powers, having successfully defeated fascism and the Nazi powers. Thus the Great Powers assumed a pivotal role in the UN’s peacekeeping mandate that was designed to maintain and regulate international order. At the time, the main powers with the authority to negotiate peace and order were vested in the US and the USSR. The prevailing belief was that world peace and security was not possible unless the Great Powers cooperated and coordinated efforts to prevent and punish â€Å"aggression†. 7